Australian Journal of Islamic Studies <p style="text-align: justify;">The <em>Australian Journal of Islamic Studies</em> is an open access, double-blind peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the scholarly study of Islam. The journal publishes original research articles, essays and book reviews related to Islamic sciences to promote the flow of ideas, exchange and discussion of research findings.</p> Centre of Islamic Studies and Civilisation en-US Australian Journal of Islamic Studies 2207-4414 <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial No Derivatives 4.0 Australia that allows others to share the work with acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Editors’ Introduction <p>No abstract available.</p> Salih Yucel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 1 3 Locating Settler Colonialism in the Myths of Burke and Wills <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> Within Australian settler colonial history, a process of ‘space-off’ in exploration cultural representations has created a form of erasure and denial of Aboriginal and Islamic peoples. By focusing specifically on the camels and the ‘sepoys’ employed by the Victorian Exploring Expedition in 1860, commonly known as Burke and Wills, this paper identifies examples of representation and participation which led to exploration and settlement throughout inland Australia. Using visual artworks and other secondary sources of the colonial era, with the support of more recent literature associated with cameleer and Aboriginal histories, this discussion on various representations of settler colonialism and erasure highlight specific shared histories worthy of further research.</p> Peta Lee Jeffries ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 4 22 The Early History of Micro and Meso Dialogue between Muslims and Non-Muslims in Australia <p>Interfaith dialogue has been touted as a means to solve many of the religious divisions that have arisen in an increasingly global and multi-faith society. In Australia, now a multi-cultural and multi faith society, a range of organisations exist to facilitate this dialogue, most coming in to existence after the 1960’s This paper will review the early dialogue between Muslims and non-Muslims as portrayed in the public record. It covers pre and post-Colonial Australia, up until the 1950’s. As inter-faith dialogue becomes more important in an increasingly global society, it will examine the effect that micro and meso level dialogue has influenced social harmony at some levels. By examining the public record and the narratives surrounding the Macassans, Afghans and other early Muslims, this paper will firstly argue that micro and meso dialogue prior to the 1950s’ between Muslims immigrants and non-Muslims made a contribution to the social harmony in Australia. Secondly, despite many attempts by Muslims, meso level dialogue was often ineffective and sometimes failed for a variety of reasons. Additionally, it will point to the need for further research in order to paint a complete picture of the levels of dialogue between Muslims and others throughout Australian history.</p> David Ian Sneddon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 23 43 Revulsion and Reflection <p>Since the 1980s, much has been made about the lives of Australia’s first Muslim settlers, the ‘Afghan cameleers’, their pioneering achievements and the suffering they endured through Australia’s discriminatory policies and immigration laws. However, little, if any, academic attention has been given to the converts to Islam during this same period, many of whom were striving to rid the Australian public of misconceptions surrounding their new faith to end this discrimination and ignorance.</p> <p>This article briefly looks at the way Australia’s news media presented and perceived Australian Muslims from the arrival of the first cameleer settlers in the 1860s to the first few decades of the twentieth century when ‘White’ converts were increasing and unwittingly propelling Islam onto the public stage. While protectionist policies, particularly leading up to Federation, saw numerous unfavourable images of ‘coloured’ Muslims in the Australian print media, there was a subtle but significant change at the turn of the twentieth century. While the White Australia Policy stood in the face of Australia’s Asiatic Muslims, it was largely irrelevant to the growing number of European and Australian converts who sought to subvert it in order to lift the Australian Muslim community of which they were part.</p> Katy Nebhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 44 60 Tasawwuf ‘Usturaliya <p>Tracing the history of Sufism in Australia is a challenging task. The reasons for this are varied and include, but not limited to, the wide dispersal of source materials, the primarily oral transmission of Sufism, and diversity of the manifestation of Sufism. Detailing a history of Sufism in Australia is not possible in a short article. Rather than attempting to do so, this paper will emphasise that it is a neglected area that deserves significant scholarly attention. This paper will show that Australia has a rich and diverse heritage of Sufism. This is not without some challenges and raising these will support any study that attempts to engage Australia’s Sufi heritage, especially those that attempt to detail the earlier emergences of Sufism within Australia. Some solutions to the challenges of studying the history of Sufism in Australia will be proposed. In this light, Sufism in Australia can be seen to make an important contribution to the development of Australia generally and Australian Islam specifically. &nbsp;</p> Abu Bakr Sirajuddin Cook ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 60 74 ANZAC Muslims <p>When the Commonwealth of Australia became immersed in two World Wars, Australian Muslims accepted the national call – they shed their blood and gave their lives for Australia’s freedom and democracy. With their Australian brothers-in-arms and allies they fought courageously with honour against their common enemies in different battlefields – but this is an almost forgotten history.</p> <p>Muslims in Australia were challenged by Britain’s imperial might and by their status as British subjects and ‘aliens’ to take part in ANZAC showing their commitment to their adopted country. The virtue of justice, sense of responsibility and loyalty are peculiar qualities that find their full justification in the organised welfare of Australian society.</p> <p>This pioneering article, based on ongoing research on ANZAC Muslims, makes known their unique contribution. It reveals historic facts about ANZAC Muslims who were members of what has come to be known as the <em>Heroic Generation</em>. Although their names have not appeared in history books, they achieved the glory of victory for a better future for new generations to come. Their contribution is part of Australian National Heritage – Lest we forget.</p> Dzavid Haveric ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 75 98 The Muslim Student Associations (MSAS) and the Formation of the Australian Ummah <p>The evolution of Australian immigration policies led to the development of two key phases in the 20th century that changed the entry and settlement of Muslim migrants to Australia. Besides the phasing out of the White Australia Policy, the overlooked impact of the Colombo Plan and its correlation with the Muslim Youth Movement of Australia has not yet been considered. Moreover, the role of international students in universities led to the formation of Muslim student associations across Australian campuses from the 1960s. These associations and societies provided ground-breaking opportunities and safe spaces for the upward mobility, activism and communal development of their members. While the newly arrived Muslims were trying to find means to settle and lay the foundations of their communal life, the university associations were advancing into amalgamated national bodies, which through their activities soon became a referential establishment in national and international relations. This article traces the foundations and development of Muslim student associations in Australia, which shed light onto the Islamic revival euphoria that was prevalent at the time. This subsequently encouraged the Islamisation of the student associations as they became more focused on Islamic activism that contributed to the creation of the Australian ummah.</p> Mahsheed Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 99 116 Mahomet Allum <p>Mahomet Allum, an Afghan herbalist whose family practised medicine over centuries, arrived in 1891,and spent most of his life in Australia, eventually settling in Adelaide. He endeared himself especially to the poor and labour class, in treating their illnesses efficaciously without payment. He donated effusively to charities, and disseminated Islamic knowledge.</p> <p>Allum criticised contemporary Australian medical practices – he pioneered campaigning in Australia against inhumane use of live animals for vivisection and pathological testing, and injecting animal serums into humans. He stood on his principles in the ensuing challenge between tradition and modernity, which ended in court with him being convicted for claiming to be a ‘physician’, which witnesses denied. The accounts reviewed suggest Mahomet Allum’s herbalist skill was likely superior to many Western medical outcomes in the 1930s, implying that healing capabilities of traditional Afghan <em>cum</em> Islamic medicine were only equalled in the past century. Allum was a rarity in challenging the prevailing view of European racial superiority. His reported shortcomings were that he lost no opportunity to promote himself, and his critique of ‘Western’ medicine, including vaccinations. Sadly, his wife died from smallpox for which effective vaccination had been discovered and used in Ottoman Turkey before 1700.</p> Daud Abdul-Fattah Batchelor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 117 134 Sayyid İbrahim Dellal <p>İbrahim Dellal (1932-2018) was a community activist and played a pioneering role in establishing religious and educational institutions after his arrival in Melbourne in early 1950. As the grandson of a late Ottoman mufti, being educated at the American Academy, a Baptist missionary school in Cyprus, clashed at times with his traditional upbringing based on Islam, service and Ottoman patriotism. İbrahim’s parents, especially his mother, raised their son to be <em>Osmanli Efendisi</em>, an Ottoman gentleman. He was raised to be loyal to his faith and dedicated to his community. I met him in the late 80s in Sydney and discovered he was an important community leader, a ‘living history’, perhaps the most important figure in the Australian Muslim community since the mid-20th century. He was also one of the founders of Carlton and Preston mosques, which were the first places of worship in Victoria. I wrote his biography and published it in 2010. However, later I found he had more stories related to Australian Muslim heritage. First, this article will analyse İbrahim’s untold stories from his unrevealed archives that I collected. Second, İbrahim’s traditional upbringing, which was a combination of Western education and Ottoman <em>Efendisi</em>, will be critically evaluated. He successfully amalgamated Eurocentric education and Islamic way of life. Finally, his poetry, which reflects his thoughts, will be discussed.</p> Salih Yucel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 3 3 135 146