Australian Journal of Islamic Studies <p style="text-align: justify;">The <em>Australian Journal of Islamic Studies</em> is an open access, double-blind peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the scholarly study of Islam. The journal publishes original research articles, essays and book reviews related to Islamic sciences to promote the flow of ideas, exchange and discussion of research findings.</p> Centre of Islamic Studies and Civilisation en-US Australian Journal of Islamic Studies 2207-4414 <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial No Derivatives 4.0 Australia that allows others to share the work with acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Adultery Laws in Islam and Stoning in the Modern World <p>This article looks at the legal basis within Islamic scholarship for imposing stoning for the crime of adultery. Traditionally it has been accepted that, based on Qur'an, hadith and examples from the Rightly Guided Caliphs, stoning is the Islamic punishment for married adulterers. However, upon closer inspection it appears these sources may not be as solid as once believed. While the <em>jumhoor</em> (majority) opinion for stoning remains, there are notable scholars, traditional and modern, who discount, question and even reject these arguments. Despite the <em>jumhoor</em>, the severity of the punishment is greatly tempered by the high evidentiary standards that act as its safeguard. These safeguards are briefly discussed.</p> <p>The second part of this article looks at stoning in the modern world, which has occurred as a by-product of the rising phenomenon of <em>sharia</em> application in modern Muslim countries. The challenge for these countries is how to apply <em>sharia </em>punishments such as stoning, while maintaining <em>sharia</em>’s aims of equality, social justice and morality.</p> <p>Solutions for existing and emerging Muslim states regarding the application of punishments are made and practical suggestions for a way forward. This article essentially argues Muslim scholars and jurists must reassess the legitimacy of imposing <em>sharia</em> punishments such as stoning and reach meaningful conclusions about the future of capital punishment in the Muslim world.</p> Souha Korbatieh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 3 2 1 20 The Role of the Qur’ānic Principle of Wasaṭiyyah in Guiding Islamic Movements <p>This paper discusses the Qur’ānic principle of <em>wasaṭiyyah </em>(moderation/middle-way) towards guiding the Islamic movement and building an applied Islamic ethics. It demonstrates the application of the principle of <em>wasaṭiyyah</em> in the spheres of politics, civic engagement, spirituality, jurisprudence and theology.&nbsp; <em>Wasaṭiyyah</em> is an expression of the universal Qur’ānic principle of justice <em>(adl). </em>&nbsp;In the primary Qur’ānic verse on <em>wasaṭiyyah,</em> it describes the Muslim community as a witness of moderation to other nations. Observing the principle of <em>wasaṭiyyah</em> may draw individuals, the community and Islamic movements towards a middle-way. The paper will focus on modernist and Islamist movements in the late nineteenth and twentieth century. To reverse extremist tendencies among fringe groups within these movements, a practical methodology on the foundations of a centrist-based approach is needed. Through embracing Islam’s teachings on moderation, truth and justice the consequences of extremism may be remedied. The Islamic movement as a collective endeavour to guide humanity to Islam and restore the message of <em>tawḥīd</em> in the hearts, minds and lives of Muslims will be studied through the prism of <em>wasaṭiyyah</em>. The paper attempts to develop an applied Islamic ethics on the theoretical framework of <em>wasaṭiyyah</em> and <em>maqāsid al-Sharī’ah </em>(Objectives of Islamic Law) towards guiding the Islamic movement to promote justice and moderation. Thus, through harmonising<em> wasaṭiyyah</em> and <em>maqāsid al-Sharī‘ah</em> we may develop a balanced legal model, synthesising the ethical and legal face of the Islamic tradition.</p> Nabil Yasien Mohammad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 3 2 21 38 A Brief Review of Classical and Modern Tafsir Trends and Role of Modern Tafasir in Contemporary Islamic Thought <p>This article briefly reviews traditional and modern tafsirtrends and how moderntafasirhave shaped contemporary Islamic thought. Classical tafsirtrends, tafsir bi al-ma’thur (tradition-based interpretation) and tafsir bi al-ra’y(reason-based interpretation), are well-documented in historical norms of Qur’ānic exegesis. However, modernity, with its complex socioeconomic, religious, political and cultural developments, presents unique challenges to muffassirun(authors of Qur’ānic interpretations) to contextualise the Qur’ānic message and provide guidance to modern-day Muslims and their worldview. Complex modern Islamic thought is a selection of ideologies and philosophies that resulted from the prevailing diverse geopolitical, sociocultural and economic environment. These dynamic elements of modernity have conceptualised tafsirtrends into the textualist, contextualist, modernist, socio-political, scientific, thematic and feminist approaches. These trends have not only transformed contemporary Islamic thought, and vice versa, but also continue to collectively evolve to meet the challenges of modernity.</p> Amer Zulfiqar Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 3 2 39 52 Serving Islam Peacefully during the Aggression and Said Nursi's Kalamisation of Positive Action for Social Harmony <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> Injustice, oppression and tyranny are as old as human beings. Three types of responses can be made: a) to respond in the same or worse manner; b) to remain silent and accept the oppression due to weakness; or c) to take a path that is not based on revenge or acceptance of oppression and injustice, but redirects people’s negative feelings towards a worthier cause, decreasing the propagation of evil. This third way does not involve envying the worldly goods or positions of others. Rather, it involves redirecting or transforming animosity for the common good. Said Nursi (1987-1960) calls this “positive action” (<em>m</em><em>ü</em><em>sbet</em><em> hareket</em>). This article suggests Nursi’s third way of responding to injustice, oppression and tyranny is proactive civil disobedience based on the Qur’an and Sunnah. By acting peacefully throughout his life, particularly in the “New Said” era, Nursi aimed to revive society “from the bottom up” and not from “the top down,” an approach he felt avoided the injustice and oppression seen among political Islamists. Nursi called this <em>ilelebed müsbet hareket</em>, which means “acting positively forever.” Given the context and manner through which it was practiced, I call this “kalamised (theologised) civil disobedience.” This can be considered as <em>tajdid</em>, a peaceful way of renewal against injustice and oppression. This paper is divided into three sections. The first section examines positive action in Nursi’s life and works. The second section details Nursi’s third approach against aggression and will be viewed from theological and sociological perspectives. Finally, the third section suggests Nursi’s way of positive action is highly idealistic and, while not impossible, is applied with difficulty in an individualistic and materialistic society.</p> Salih Yucel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 3 2 53 67 Jesus as God's Word <p>Both the Christian New Testament and the Qur’ān obscurely identify the figure of Jesus with the ‘Word’. While the term’s Biblical use is well-treated by, and indeed central to, Christological theology, modern treatments of the Islamic model are often reductive, refracted through Christian understandings. This article seeks to provide a more holistic account of Jesus’ title in Islam, highlighting the nuances in the term’s usage through a comparative framework. It considers the title’s connotations in Christianity and Islam, and how each conceptualised and developed them separately. This article concludes that, in both traditions, the term links Jesus to God’s revelation, and to His creative capacity; however, the religions’ distinct theological axioms differentiate the term’s true signification. Christianity considers these elements of divinity directly incarnated in Jesus, through hypostasis, whereas Islamic theology regards the title as a connotative appellation, applying these attributes of God to the Prophet Jesus only descriptively and contingently. This disparity demonstrates the distinct theological approaches taken in Christianity and Islam – obtaining different results, although applied to a notionally similar problem – as well as the importance of considering their intellectual traditions independently.</p> Grant Kynaston ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 3 2 68 85