A Brief Review and Critical Analysis of the Major Theological Positions Classical Muslim Scholars had on Whether Actions are part of Iman

  • Amer Ali Charles Sturt University
Keywords: Iman, Kharijism, Murijism, Ash'arism, Maturidism


This article briefly reviews and presents critical analysis of the major theological positions classical Muslim scholars held regarding the role of actions in one’s iman (faith). The intricate relationship that actions commands in the expression of iman has carved its way throughout Islamic history. Dogmatic opposing theological positions, such as actions being an integral part or completely independent of iman, were passionately deliberated and propagated in early Islam. Among the extreme views of the Kharijites and early Murijites, Ash’arism and Maturidism, however, was a more balanced theological construct encompassing actions through the tenets of Islam. Since an individual’s actions in a social construct are the personification of its civic values, it has always been of utmost importance for Muslim scholarship to condemn philosophies that propagate unrestrained freedom of actions or excommunication of a Muslim due to the frivolity of their actions. To foster civilities that typify the very essence of a religion that dignifies human character as its very reason, it is only befitting of its scholarship to continue to relentlessly deliberate and advance the relationship that exists between one’s actions and iman.