The "Muslim Question" and Muslim Cultural Citizenship in Australia
Over the past few decades, Muslims in Australia and the West have been subjected to exclusionary attitudes and discourses. These practices comprise what is called the "Muslim Question." Through its perception of Muslim culture as opposed to Western values and integration, the Muslim Question brings into focus the issue of Muslim citizenship. Studies on Muslim citizenship do not conceptualise how this antagonising situation impacts on Muslim citizenship status. To address this gap in the literature, the current paper turns to cultural citizenship theory. The paper focuses on bottom-up and top-down cultural agents and practices to give a complete picture of Muslim citizenship status. In doing so, the paper finds that there is a cultural barrier to Muslims becoming full citizens. It is the MQ that constructs this barrier and limits Muslim cultural mobility in Australian society.
Ali, Jan A. "Australian Muslims as Radicalised 'Other' and Their Experiences of Social Exclusion." In Islam in the West: Perceptions and Reactions, edited by Abe W. Ata and Jan A. Ali, 108-128. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Aly, Anne. "Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media." Australian Journal of Social Issues 42, no.1 (2007): 27-40. doi: 10.1002/j.1839-4655.2007.tb00037.x.
Baker, Nick. "Outrage as Fraser Anning blames NZ attacks on 'Muslim immigration'." SBS News, 15 March, 2019. "https://www.sbs.com.au/news/outrage-as-fraser-anning-blames-nz-attacks-on-muslim-immigration.
Beaman, Jean. "Citizenship as Cultural: Towards a Theory of Cultural Citizenship." Sociology Compass 10, no. 10 (2016): 849-857. doi: 10.1111/soc4.12415.
Brasted, Howard. "Contested Representations in Historical Perspective: Images of Islam and the Australian Press 1950-2000." In Islam in Australia, edited by Shahram Akbazadeh, 206-227. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2001.
Briskman, Linda. "The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia." International Journal For Crime, Justice And Social Democracy 4, no. 3 (2015): 112-121. doi: 10.5204/ijcjsd.v3i2.244.
Dunn, Kevin M., Natascha Klocker, and Tanya Salabay. "Contemporary Racism and Islamophobia in Australia: Racializing Religion." Ethnicities, 7 no. 4 (2007): 564-589. doi: 10.1177/1468796807084017.00571887.
Ewart, Jacqui, Mark Pearson, and Guy Healy. "Journalists’ and Educators’ Perspectives on News Media Reporting of Islam and Muslim Communities in Australia and New Zealand." Journal of Media and Religion 15, no. 3 (2016): 136-145. doi: 10.1080/15348423.2016.1209391.
Farris, Sara R. "From the Jewish Question to the Muslim Question: Republican Rigorism, Culturalist Differentialism and Antinomies of Enforced Emancipation." Constellations 21, no. 2 (2014): 296-307. doi: 10.1111/1467-8675.12087.
Fozdar, Farida. "'They want to turn to their religion. But they should turn to be Australians': Everyday Discourses About Why Muslims Don't Belong in Australia." In Muslim Citizens in the West: Spaces and Agents of Inclusion and Exclusion, edited by Samina Yasmeen and Nina Markovic, 87-104. Burlington: Ashgate, 2014.
Humphrey, Michael. "Culturalising the Abject: Islam, Law, and Moral Panic in the West." Australian Journal of Social Issues 42, no. 1 (2007): 9-25. doi: 10.1002/j.1839-4655.2007.tb00036.x.
Humphrey, Michael. "Securitisation, Social Inclusion and Muslims in Australia." In Muslims in Australia: The Dynamics of Exclusion and Inclusion, edited by Samina Yasmeen, 56-78. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2010.
Isakhan, Benjamin. "Orientalism and the Australian News Media: Origins and Questions." In Islam and the Australian News Media, edited by Halim Rane, Jacqui Ewart, and Mohamad Abdallah, 3-25. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2010.
Johns, Amelia, Fethi Mansouri, and Michele Lobo. "Religiosity, Citizenship and Belonging: The Everyday Experiences of Young Australian Muslims." Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 35, no. 2 (2015): 171-190. doi: 10.1080/13602004.2015.1046262.
Joppke, Christian. "Through the European Looking Glass: Citizenship Tests in the USA, Australia, and Canada." Citizenship Studies 17, no. 1 (2013): 1-15. doi: 0.1080/13621025.2012.669965.
Kabir, Nahid, A. "Representation of Islam and Muslims in the Australian Media, 2001–2005." Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 26, no. 3 (2006): 313-328. doi:10. 1080/1360200060114128.
Kabir, Nahid, A. "The Media is One-sided in Australia." Journal of Children and Media 2, no. 3 (2008): 267-281. doi: 10.1080/17482790802327566.
Kabir, Nahid, A. "Young Muslims' Identity in Australia and the US: The Focus on the 'Muslim Question." In Islam in the West: Perceptions and Reactions, edited by Abe W. Ata, and Jan A. Ali, 129-155. New Delhi: Oxford University Press 2018.
Khamis, Susie. "Braving the Burqini™: Re-Branding the Australian Beach." Cultural Geographies 17, no. 3 (2010): 379-390. doi: 10.1177/1474474010368608.
Levey, Geoffrey B. "Religious Inclusion, Core Values, and the 'Muslim Question' in Multicultural Democracies." in Muslims in Australia: The Dynamics of Exclusion and Inclusion, edited by Samina Yasmeen, 30-55. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2010.
Lewis, Rosie. "Terror Highlights ‘Problem in Islam,’ Says Josh Frydenberg.” The Australian, November 30, 2015. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/in-depth/terror/terror-highlights-problem-in-Islam-saysjosh-frydenberg/news-story/6cd876395ef47828501e6525066c36c3&memtype=anonymous.
Manning, Peter K. “Australians Imagining Islam.” In Muslims and the News Media, edited by Elizabeth Poole, and John E. Richardson, 128-141. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006.
Marshall, Thomas, H. Citizenship and social class. London: Pluto Press,  1992.
Miller, Toby. "Introducing. .. Cultural Citizenship." Social Text 19, no. 4 (2001): 1-5. doi: 10.1215/01642472-19-4_69-1.
Modood, Tariq. Multicultural Politics: Racism, Ethnicity, and Muslims in Britain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.
Northcote, Jeremy, and Suzy Casimiro. "Muslim Citizens and Belonging in Australia: Negotiating the Inclusive/Exclusive Divide." In Muslims in Australia: The Dynamics of Exclusion and Inclusion, edited by Samina Yasmeen, 141-161. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2010.
Norton, Anne. On the Muslim Question. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013.
O'Brien, Peter. The Muslim Question in Europe: Political Controversies and Public Philosophies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2016.
Pakulski, Jan. "Cultural Citizenship." Citizenship Studies 1, no. 1 (1997): 73-86. doi:10.1080/13621029708420648.
Parekh, Bhikhu. European Liberalism and 'The 'Muslim Question.' Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008.
Patton, Chloe. "Multicultural Citizenship and Religiosity: Young Australian Muslims Forging a Sense of Belonging after 9/11." Journal of Intercultural Studies 35, no. 1 (2014): 107-122. doi: 10.1080/07256868.2013.864626.
Pawley, Lawrence. "Cultural Citizenship." Sociology Compass 2, no. 2 (2008): 594-608. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2008.00094.x.
Peucker, Mario, and Shahram Akbarzadeh. Muslim Active Citizenship in the West. New York: Routledge, 2014.
Peucker, Mario, Joshua M. Roose, and Shahram Akbarzadeh. "Muslim Active Citizenship in Australia: Socioeconomic Challenges and the Emergence of a Muslim Elite." Australian Journal of Political Science 49, no. 2 (2014): 282-299. doi: 10.1080/10361146.2014.899967.
Rane, Halim, Jacqui Ewart, and Mohamad Abdallah, eds. Islam and the Australian News Media. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2010.
Remeikis, Amy. "Pauline Hanson says Islam is a disease Australia needs to 'vaccinate'." The Sydney Morning Herald, March 24, 2017. https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/pauline-hanson-says-Islām -is-a-disease- australia-needs-to-vaccinate-20170324-gv5w7z.html.
Roose, Joshua M., and Anita Harris. "Muslim Citizenship in Everyday Australian Civic Spaces," Journal of Intercultural Studies 36, no. 4 (2015): 468-486. doi: 10.1080/07256868.2015.1049984.
Rosaldo, Renato. "Cultural Citizenship in San Jose California." PoLAR 17, no. 2 (1994): 57– 64. doi: 10.1525/pol.19126.96.36.199.
Selby, Jennifer A., and Lori G. Beaman. "Re-Posing the "Muslim Question." Critical Research on Religion 4, no. 1 (2016): 8-20. doi: 10.1177/2050303216630541.
Stevenson, Nick. "Cultural Citizenship in the ‘Cultural’ Society: A Cosmopolitan Approach." Citizenship Studies 7, no. 3 (2003): 331-348. doi: 10.1080/1362102032000098904.
Sydney Criminal Lawyers. "'African Youth Gangs: The Dangers of Racialised Discourse." Sydney Criminal Lawyers® Articles, January 22, 2018. https://www.sydneycriminallawyers.com.au/blog/african-youth-gangs-the-dangers-of-racialised-discourse/.
Voloder, Lejla. "The “Mainstreaming” of Halal: Muslim Consumer-Citizenship in Australia," Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 35, no. 2 (2015): 230-244. doi: 10.1080/13602004.2015.1051753.
Copyright (c) 2020 Rizwan Sahib
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial No Derivatives 4.0 Australia that allows others to share the work with acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.