Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

The Application of Islamic Principles on Entrepreneurship Competence Development Framework

Australian Journal of Islamic Studies - Volume 9, Issue 1 Special Issue


Entrepreneurship is when you act on opportunities or ideas and transform them into value for others. The value that is created can be financial, cultural, or social. Entrepreneurship has been proven as an important key to propelling economic growth and the world is in an urgent need of more competent entrepreneurs.

Several institutions and scholars have attempted to create a framework to develop this important competence. The European Union has developed the most comprehensive one, which is called the Entrepreneurship Competence Development Framework (EntreComp). Despite its comprehensiveness, the framework is based on a humanism perspective, which negates the supernatural existence and advocates achieving immediate worldly goals and unconstrained creativity. Consequently, EntreComp is incompatible with the Islamic perspective, which puts a transcendental being (God) as the foundation and axis of all things.

The vision of this research is to develop a competent Muslim entrepreneur (Muslimpreneur) through establishing a practical framework called Muslimpreneurship Competence Development Framework (MCDF). The research was qualitative and exploratory. The Islamisation of Knowledge methodology was applied to synthesise the EntreComp to establish a practical MCDF. The EntreComp was instilled and enriched with core Islamic principles and teachings, making the competence development framework more compatible, comprehensive, and effective for Muslim end users.


Muslimpreneur, Entrepreneurship, Competence Development Framework, Islamization of Knowledge (IoK), EntreComp, Islamic Teaching



  1. AbdulGaniyy, AbdulFattah, Ibraheem Alani AbdulKareem and Aminu AbdulRaheem. “Financing Entrepreneurship in Post-Covid-19 Era: The Islamic Banking and Finance Option.” Journal of Islamic Economic and Business Research 1, no. 2 (2021): 193-201. DOI:
  2. Abdullah, Azimah, and Mohd Farid Mohd Sharif. “The Concept of Islamic Personality and Spiritual Development.” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 9, no. 9 (2019): 936-49. DOI:
  3. Abdullah, Azizah, Shuhairimi Abdullah and Abdul Jalil Ramli. “Entrepreneurship According to the Hadeeth.” International Journal of Business and Management 3, no. 4 (2019): 1-5. DOI:
  4. Achour, Meguellati, Benaouda Bensaid and Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd Nor. “An Islamic Perspective on Coping with Life Stressors.” Applied Research in Quality of Life 11, no. 3 (2016): 663-85. DOI:
  5. Afrasibi, Simin, and Zakieh Fattahi. “A Comparative Study of Self-Actualization in Psychology and Islam.” World Family Medicine Journal/Middle East Journal of Family Medicine 15, no. 9 (2017): 104-11. DOI:
  6. Al-Ash’ath as-Sijistani, Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān. “Book of Knowledge.” In Sunan Abi Dawud. Accessed October 31, 2022.
  7. Al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid. The Forty Principles of the Religion. Edited by Nasir Abdussalam. London: Turath Publishing, 2016.
  8. Al-Maghnīsāwī, Abu ’l-Muntaha. Imam Abu Hanifa’s Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained. Edited by Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf Mangera. London: White Thread Press, 2007.
  9. Al-Mawdūdī, Abul Alā. “Towards Understanding the Quran.” Edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari. The Islamic Foundation, 2009.
  10. Almeida, Fernando, and Zoltan Buzady. “Assessment of Entrepreneurship Competencies through the Use of FLIGBY.” Digital Education Review 35 (2019): 151-169. DOI:
  11. Al-Qadi, Wadad Kadi. “The Primordial Covenant and Human History in the Qur’ān.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 147, no. 4 (2003): 332-38.
  12. Asri Abdullah, Moha, and Md. Siddique Azam. “Halal Entrepreneurship: Concept and Business Opportunities.” In Entrepreneurship - Contemporary Issues, edited by Mladen Turuk, 1-15. IntechOpen, 2021. DOI:
  13. Bacigalupo, Margherita, Panagiotis Kampylis, Yves Punie and Godelieve van den Brande. EntreComp: The Entrepreneurship Competence Framework. JRC Science for Policy Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016.
  14. Bernstein, Peter. “The New Religion of Risk Management.” Harvard Business Review 2 (1996).
  15. Bird, Barbara. “Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Competency.” Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth 21 (2019): 115-31. DOI:
  16. Bisson, Christian. “Risks aren’t always Negative.” PM Network 28, no. 8 (2014): 24-25.
  17. Botha, Melodi, and Amorie Taljaard. “Exploring the Entrepreneurial Intention-Competency Model for Nascent Entrepreneurs: Insights from a Developing Country Context.” Frontiers in Psychology 12 (2021): 1-17. DOI:
  18. Boulven, Mohd Adib, S. Abdullah, Azizan Bahari, A. Ramli, N. S. Hussin, Jamsari Jamaluddin and Z. Ahmad. “Model of Islamic Social Entrepreneurship: A Study on Successful Muslim Social Entrepreneur in Malaysia.” MATEC Web of Conference 150 (2018), art. 05093. DOI:
  19. Bouslama, Ghassen, and Younes Lahrichi. “Uncertainty and Risk Management from Islamic Perspective.” Research in International Business and Finance 39 (2017): 718-26. DOI:
  20. Brooks, Melanie, and Agus Mutohar. “Islamic School Leadership: A Conceptual Framework.” Journal of Educational Administration and History 50, no. 2 (2018): 54-68. DOI:
  21. Bsoul, Labeeb, Amani Omer, Lejla Kucukalic and Ricardo Archbold. “Islam’s Perspective on Environmental Sustainability: A Conceptual Analysis.” Social Sciences 11, no. 6 (2022): 228. DOI:
  22. Budiyanti, Nurti, Asep Abdul Aziz, Palah Palah and Agus Salim Mansyur. “The Formulation of the Goal of Insan Kamil as a Basis for the Development of Islamic Education Curriculum.” International Journal of Education and Curriculum Application 3, no. 2 (2020): 81-90.
  23. Choudhury, Masudul Alam. “Principles of Islamic Economics.” Middle Eastern Studies 19, no. 1 (1983): 93-103. DOI:
  24. Cordaro, Daniel, Marc Brackett, Lauren Glass and Craig Anderson. “Contentment: Perceived Completeness across Cultures and Traditions.” Review of General Psychology 20, no. 3 (2016): 221-35. DOI:
  25. Cunningham, Patrick. “European Union: Measuring Success.” Issues in Science and Technology 26, no. 3 (2010): 75-80.
  26. Edwards-Schachter, Mónica, Ana García-Granero, Mabel Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Henry Quesada-Pineda and Nabil Amara. “Disentangling Competences: Interrelationships on Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship.” Thinking Skills and Creativity 16 (2015): 27-39. DOI:
  27. Eisenmann, Tom. “Entrepreneurship: A Working Definition.” Harvard Business Review, January 10, 2013.
  28. Ergi, Omer. “ISL593 Islamic Theology: Classic to Contemporary Thought - Seminar 02 Historical Development of Islamic Theology.” Charles Sturt University. Melbourne, 2022. Accessed June 17, 2022. Interact2.
  29. Faris, Mohammed. “Barakah Culture vs. Hustle Culture: How to Win More Days Without Losing your Soul.” The Productive Muslim Company, December 6, 2018.
  30. Faris, Mohammed. The Productive Muslim: Where Faith Meets Productivity, 4th ed. Swansea: Claritas Books, 2017.
  31. Gianesini, Giovanna, Serena Cubico, Giuseppe Favretto and João Leitão. “Entrepreneurial Competences: Comparing and Contrasting Models and Taxonomies.” In Entrepreneurship and the Industry Life Cycle: The Changing Role of Human Capital and Competences, edited by Serena Cubico, Giuseppe Favretto, João Leitão and Uwe Cantner, 13-32. Springer Cham, 2018. DOI:
  32. Gümüsay, Ali Aslan. “Entrepreneurship from an Islamic Perspective.” Journal of Business Ethics 130, no. 1 (2015): 199-208. DOI:
  33. Halverson, Jeffry. Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash’arism, and Political Sunnism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. DOI:
  34. Ḥanbal, Aḥmad ibn. “Al-Ǧuzʾ Al-ʿišrūn.” In Musnad Al-Imām Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal. Beirut: Al Resalah Publishing House, 1997.
  35. Hassan, Yusuf. “A Decade of Research on Muslim Entrepreneurship.” Journal of Islamic Marketing 13, no. 6 (2022): 1288-1311. DOI:
  36. Hill, Stephen and Aileen Ionescu-Somers. “What is GEM.” In Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2021/2022 Global Report: Opportunity Amid Disruption, edited by Stephen Hill, Aileen Ionescu-Somers and Alicia Coduras, 22-30. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, 2022.
  37. Hoffmann, Terrence. “The Meaning of Competency.” Journal of European Industrial Training 23, no. 6 (1999): 275-85. DOI:
  38. Huda, Miftachul, Ajat Sudrajat, Razaleigh Muhamat, Kamarul Shukri Mat Teh and Burhanuddin Jalal. “Strengthening Divine Values for Self-Regulation in Religiosity: Insights from Tawakkul (Trust in God).” International Journal of Ethics and Systems 35, no. 3 (2019): 323-44. DOI:
  39. Huda, Miftachul, Jibrail Bin Yusuf, Kamarul Azmi Jasmi, and Gamal Nasir Zakaria. “Al-Zarnūjī’s Concept of Knowledge (‘Ilm).” SAGE Open 6, no. 3 (2016). DOI:
  40. Ishaq, Fizza, and Ansar Abbas. “Characteristics of Islamic Entrepreneurship: Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan.” Business & Social Science Journal 5, no. 2 (2020): 1-15.
  41. Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 2003.
  42. Kassim, Mona, and Islam Sultan Sharif Ali. “Taqwā-Based Competency Framework: A Maqāṣid Option.” The Journal of Islamic Governance 2, no. 1 (2016): 17-35. DOI:
  43. Kayed, Rasem, and M. Kabir Hassan. “Islamic Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia.” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 15, no. 4 (2010): 379-413. DOI:
  44. Kinstella, Stephan. “The Case Against Intellectual Property.” In Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics, edited by Christoph Luetge, 1325–55. München: Springer, 2012. DOI:
  45. Lackeus, Martin. Entrepreneurship in Education: What, Why, When, How. OECD, 2015.
  46. Lings, Martin. Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, 2nd ed. Rochester: Inner Traditions, 2006.
  47. Magdoff, Harry, Richard Webster and Charles Nowell. “Western Colonialism.” Encyclopedia Britannica, December 9, 2020.
  48. McCallum, Ellin, Rebecca Weicht, Lisa McMullan and Alison Price. EntreComp: A Practical Guide. Edited by Margherita Bacigalupo and William O’Keeffe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2020.
  49. McCallum, Ellin, Rebecca Weicht, Lisa McMullan and Alison Price. EntreComp into Action: Get Inspired, Make It Happen. Edited by Margherita Bacigalupo and William O’Keeffe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2018.
  50. Millar, Carla, Olaf Groth and John Mahon. “Management Innovation in a VUCA World: Challenges and Recommendations.” California Management Review 61, no. 1 (2018): 5-14. DOI:
  51. Mohd Noor, Nurul Syazwani, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai and Muhammad Hakimi Muhammad. “Shariah Risk: Its Origin, Definition, and Application in Islamic Finance.” SAGE Open 8, no. 2 (2018). DOI:
  52. Mohd Zahid, Nurhasanah, Nur Aliah Bahaman, Shazana Sarman, Nur Zhoriifah Sofea Mohd Zainol and Nuradli Ridzwan Shah Mohd Dali. “The Prophet Muhammad S.A.W: Life as a Trader and Entrepreneur in the Perspective of Business Ethics.” Academia, 2009, 1-8.
  53. Moten, Abdul Rashid. “Islamization of Knowledge in Theory and Practice: The Contribution of Sayyid Abul A’lā Mawdūdī” Islamic Studies 43, no. 2 (2015): 247-72.
  54. Mutar, Yasir. “Investigating Cognitive Allegory in An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadiths : A Translational and Pragmatic Analysis.” Anbar University Journal of Language & Literature Winter, no. 20 (2015): 195-208.
  55. OECD. “Developing Entrepreneurship Competencies.” In Strengthening SMEs and Entrepreneurship for Productivity and Inclusive Growth: OECD 2018 Ministerial Conference on SMEs, 1-10. OECD Publishing, 2018. DOI:
  56. Peonidis, Filimon. “Freedom of Expression, Secularism and Defamation of Religion: The Case of Charlie Hebdo.” Social Sciences 8, no. 10 (2019): 1-8. DOI:
  57. Peters, Ted. “Free Will in Science, Philosophy, and Theology.” Theology and Science 17, no. 2 (2019): 149-53. DOI:
  58. Qadir, Junaid, Amana Raquib and Hafiz Saeed Ahmed. “Spiritual Excellence (Iḥsān) for Professionals: A Ḥadīth-Based Perspective.” In Handbook of Ethics of Islamic Economics and Finance, edited by Abbas Mirakhor, Zamir Iqbal and Seyed Kazem Sadr, 217-237. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2020. DOI:
  59. Ragab, Ibrahim. “On the Methodology of Islamizing the Social Sciences.” Intellectual Discourse 7, no. 1 (1999): 27-52.
  60. Rahman, Nik Mutasim Nik Ab, Nur Atiqah Abdullah, Khairul Akmaliah Adham and Norazila Mat. “Managerial Competencies: Comparing Conventional and Islamic Perspectives.” Jurnal Pengurusan 41 (2014): 91-99. DOI:
  61. Rameli, Mohd Faizal, Muhammad Ridhwan Ab. Aziz and Kalsom Ab. Wahab. “The Muslimpreneurs Characteristic From Mu’amalat Perspective.” Paper presented at The 5th Islamic Economics System Conference (IECONS 2013): Sustainable Development Through The Islamic Economics System, Kuala Lumpur, 2013.
  62. Rameli, Mohd Faizal, Muhammad Ridhwan Ab. Aziz, Kalsom Ab. Wahab and S. M. Amin. “The Characteristics of Muslimpreneurs from the View of Muslim Scholars and Academician.” International Journal of Teaching and Education II, no. 2 (2014): 47-59.
  63. Razak, Kamal Abdul. “Islamic Entrepreneurship Model.” Paper presented at the International Muamalat and Entrepreneurship Conference (IMEC 4), Malaysia, 2017.
  64. Sajeevanie, Thuduwage. “Importance of Self-Management and Future Research Thoughts: A Critical Review Perspective.” International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts 8, no. 7 (2020): 4122-27.
  65. Setia, Adi. “Al-Ghazālī on the Proprieties of Earning and Living: Insights and Exerpts from his Kitāb Ādab Al-Kasb Wal-Ma’āsh for Reviving Economies for Communities.” Islamic Sciences 11, no. 1 (2013): 19-62.
  66. Setia, Adi. “Reviving an Economics for the Common Good: The Science of Earning in Al-Shaybānī, Al-Ghazālī, and Al-Dimashqī.” Islam and Science 9, no. 2 (2011): 177-84.
  67. Setia, Adi. “The Economy of Life: Money, Wealth and Community.” The Ecumenical Review 67, no. 2 (2015): 242-66. DOI:
  68. Shaikh, Salman Ahmed. “Determining Conformity to Islamic Ethical Principles in Economic Practices: A Case of Pakistan.” MPRA Paper (2010): art. 19696. DOI:
  69. Snyder, Hannah. “Literature Review as a Research Methodology: An Overview and Guidelines.” Journal of Business Research 104 (2019): 333-39. DOI:
  70. Suddahazai, Imran H. Kan and Faizal Manjoo. “Developing Pedagogical Methodologies in Teaching Islamic Economics.” In Teaching and Research Methods for Islamic Economics and Finance, edited by Mohd Ma’Sum Billah, 113-36. London: Routledge, 2022. DOI:
  71. Vargas-Hernández, José, Mohammad Reza Noruzi and Narges Sariolghalam. “An Exploration of the Affects of Islamic Culture on Entrepreneurial Behaviors in Muslim Countries.” Asian Social Science 6, no. 5 (2010): 120-27. DOI:
  72. Venesaar, Urve, Elina Malleus, Grete Arro and Martin Toding. “Entrepreneurship Competence Model for Supporting Learners Development at all Educational Levels.” Administrative Sciences 12, no. 1 (2022): 1-29. DOI:
  73. Warde, Ibrahim. “Financial Products and Instruments.” In Islamic Finance in the Global Economy, 139-56. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010. DOI:
  74. White, Olivia, Kevin Buehler, Sven Smit, Ezra Greenberg, Mihir Mysore, Ritesh Jain, Martin Hirt, Arvind Govindarajan and Eric Chewning. “War in Ukraine: Twelve Disruptions Changing the World.” Edited by Mark Staples. McKinsey & Company, May 9, 2022. Accessed June 17, 2022.
  75. Zaman, Asad, and Junaid Qadir. “Islamic Approaches to Sustainable Development.” In Islamic Perspective for Sustainable Financial System, edited by Mehmet Saraç and Mohammed Kabir Hassan, 53-70. Istanbul University Press, 2020. DOI:


Download data is not yet available.